This is the gut area of an Eastern Grey Kangaroo taken of a property in the Southern Highlands of NSW, Australia. The top red organ appears to be the spleen but what is the elongated tubular organ extending from the spleen? Is it a deformation or the result of disease?
As far as it can be deducted from the picture you ask about Appendix or just Coecum. This is a normal finding and not abnormal one. (You can see a terminal Ileum as well). If other pictures were provided it could be possible to give more exact answer.
Kupffer Cells In Liver: Definition, Development, Anatomy, and Functions
Kupffer Cells (Source: Wikimedia)
Kupffer Cells: Every day living organisms like humans are subject to the attack of disease-causing agents called pathogens. The only good thing is that they have a special kind of innate protection referred to as “immunity“.
As the level of the complexity of the organisms increase, their immunity also becomes more extensive. Humans, for example, have various cells in the body which act to help deter the presence of pathogens.
Coming from the two Greek words “makro” and “phagein” which mean “big” and “to eat” respectively, macrophages are large and specialized cells for destroying and engulfing foreign bodies. Check out the complete history of immunology and its timeline here.
They are usually formed as a response to an infection or an accumulation of dead and damaged cells. Interestingly, macrophages in the body are modified to different structures and forms to adapt to various microorganisms and invaders.
For instance, macrophages located in the liver sinusoids are called Kupffer cells.
For the most part, directional terms are grouped in pairs of opposites based on the standard anatomical position.
- Superior and Inferior – Superior means above, inferior means below. E.g. The elbow is superior (above) to the hand. The foot is inferior (below) to the knee.
- Anterior and Posterior – Anterior means toward the front (chest side) of the body, posterior means toward the back.
- Medial and Lateral – Medial means toward the midline of the body, lateral means away from the midline.
- Proximal and Distal – Proximal means closest to the point of origin or trunk of the body, distal means farthest away. These terms are often used to describe the arms and legs. If you were describing the shin bone, the proximal end would be the end closest to the knee and the distal end would be the end closest to the foot. In the fingers, a proximal joint is the one closest to the wrist and a distal joint is the one farthest from the wrist.
- Superficial and Deep. Superficial means toward the body surface, deep means away from the body surface. E.g. Skin is superficial to a person’s organs. A person’s organs are deep to skin.
- Cephalad (or rostral) and Caudal. Cephalad means towards the head and caudal means towards the tail bone.
- Dorsal and ventral – dorsal refers to the back and ventral to the front. In the human body, these terms are interchangeable with posterior and anterior. However, when describing structures within the skull, a dorsal structure is closer to the top of the skull, and a ventral structure is closer to the base of the skull.
Other Directional Terms:
- Ipsilateral means on the same side— e.g. left arm is ipsilateral (on the same side) to the left leg.
Answer to Problem 1RQ
Pictorial representation: Fig.1 shows the parts of the respiratory system and the structure that encloses some of its parts.
Fig.1: Parts of the respiratory system and the structure that encloses some of its parts
Explanation of Solution
Oral cavity: It is the additional airway when breathing through nasal cavity is ceased.
Nasal cavity: The nasal cavity is oblong-shaped and extends from the nostril to the posterior nasal apertures. The posterior nasal apertures lead into the pharynx.
Pharynx: Pharynx is commonly known as the throat. It is a funnel-shaped pathway of about 13 centimeters in length. It is the common passageway for food and air.
Epiglottis: A flap like structure present in the throat which keeps the food from entering the windpipe and the lungs is called epiglottis.
Larynx: Larynx is also known as the voice box. It is a cylindrical structure of about 4 centimeters in length. It is continuous inferiorly with trachea and superiorly with laryngopharynx.
Trachea: The trachea is a slightly rigid, flexible, and tubular organ that referred to as windpipe. It is an open tube that attaches to the larynx and to two main bronchi.
Pleural membrane: It is double layered membrane that fills with fluid. It keeps the lungs airtight and mostly helps them to stick to the chest wall during breathing.
Bronchial tree: The highly branched system of the respiratory pathway is known as bronchial tree. The bronchial tree originates at the main bronchi and gradually branches into the narrower tubes of the respiratory pathway.
Lungs: Lungs are an important part of the respiratory system. It is the lobed elastic organ that processes the exchange of gaseous which consists of the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the blood stream and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the blood stream to the lungs.
Diaphragm: It is the muscular sheet present between the plural cavity and abdominal cavity. It has an important role in breathing process, in inhalation it contracts and flattens and in exhale, it relaxes.
Division of trachea into bronchioles: Bronchioles represent the ending portion of the conducting pathway of the respiratory system. These bronchioles lead into the initial segments of the respiratory zone (respiratory bronchioles)
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Levels of Structural Organization in the human body
The human body has 6 main levels of structural organization. We will begin this lesson with the simplest level within the structural hierarchy.
Chemical level– is the simplest level within the structural hierarchy. The chemical level includes the tiniest building blocks of matter, atoms, which combine to form molecules, like water. In turn, molecules combine to form organelles, the internal organs of a cell.
Cellular level– the cellular level is made up of the smallest unit of living matter, the cell. Individual cells may have some common functions but vary widely in size and shape. Each type of cells carries out a set of unique tasks within the human body.
Tissue level– Tissues are groups of similar cells that have a common function. A tissue must contain two different types of cells. The four basic tissue types in humans include epithelium, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue. Each tissue has a characteristic role within the human body which we will discuss later.
Organ level– an organ is a structure composed of at least two different tissue types that perform a specific function within the body. Examples include the brain, stomach, and liver. Complex functions begin to emerge at this level.
Levels of structural organization that make up the human body.
Organ system level– One or more organs work in unison to accomplish a common purpose. For instance, the heart and blood vessels work together and circulate blood throughout the body to provide oxygen and nutrients to cells. Besides the cardiovascular system, the other organ systems of the body are the integumentary, skeletal, nervous, muscular, endocrine, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.
Organismal level– The organismal level is the highest level of organization. It is the sum total of all structural levels working together. In short, it is the human being (or organism) as a whole.
It is a rubber fig (Ficus elastica). It's funny that you say it is an outdoor plant, because in my climate (Europe) it is an indoor plant (so I didn't expect this one), I have one in my living room. It contains, like all fig plants, white milky sap which can irritate the skin so be careful when pruning it.
It propagates very easy by cuttings. Mine was a tip cutting with 4 leaves and was put in water first, when roots appeared after a few weeks it was put in a container with soil.
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Abdominal Four Quadrants
The abdominopelvic region can be divided into four quadrants. These quadrants are defined by the intersection of the sagittal plane with the umbilical plane (the transverse plane through the navel). Clinicians use these regions to determine the organs and tissues that may be causing pain or discomfort in that region.
Right Upper Quadrant
The right upper quadrant contains the right portion of the liver, the gallbladder, right kidney, a small portion of the stomach, the duodenum, the head of the pancreas, portions of the ascending and transverse colon, and parts of small intestine. Pain in this region is associated with infection and inflammation in the gallbladder and liver or peptic ulcers in the stomach.
Left Upper Quadrant
The left upper quadrant is the location of the left portion of the liver, part of the stomach, the pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of the transverse and descending colon, and parts of the small intestine. Pain in this region is associated with malrotation of the intestine and colon.
Right Lower Quadrant
In the right lower quadrant sits the cecum, appendix, part of the small intestines, the right half of the female reproductive system, and the right ureter. Pain in this region is most commonly associated with appendicitis.
Left Lower Quadrant
The left lower quadrant houses the majority of the small intestine, some of the large intestine, the left half of the female reproductive system, and the left ureter. Pain in this region is generally associated with colitis (inflammation of the large intestine) as well as pelvic inflammatory disease and ovarian cysts in females.
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