Information

What will happen if a foetus is Rh- and the mother is Rh+?


If a mother has Rh-negative blood and her foetus has Rh-positive blood it will result in rhesus incompatibility and lead to erythroblastosis fetalis. What will happen if the reverse occurs, when a mother is Rh+ and the foetus is Rh-?


Nothing. Rhesus incompatibility results when people who are Rh- develop antibodies against Rh+ blood after exposure. People with Rh+ blood do not show any such reaction to Rh- blood.

In a way, it's comparable to blood types in that regard. People with the blood group O can develop antibodies against type (for example) B blood. People with type B don't develop antibodies against type O blood, and can thus receive blood donations of type O.

Also, rhesus incompatibility during pregnancy is only a concern in second or subsequent pregnancies (or after miscarriages). The antibodies develop through the blood being "mixed" during the birth (or miscarriage) and are then an issue if the next fetus also has Rh+ blood, which is just assumed if the father is Rh+ or has an unknown blood type to be on the safe side, and can be addressed medically.

Injections of a medicine called Rh immune globulin can keep your body from making Rh antibodies. This medicine helps prevent the problems of Rh incompatibility. If you're Rh-negative, you'll need this medicine every time you have a baby with Rh-positive blood.

-What is Rh Incompatibility

Also, as you can read in my answer to a similar question about blood groups and pregnancy How does a fetus retain a blood group different from its mother? the maternal and fetal blood usually only mix during birth due to the placental blood barrier. If you are wondering whether the fetus should have a reaction, the immediate functions necessary for that don't develop until more than six months after birth.


What will happen if a foetus is Rh- and the mother is Rh+? - Biology

Article Summary:

An adult human has about 4-6 litres of blood that circulates in the body. It helps to circulate/transport oxygen to various parts of the body. Blood consists of several cells floating in a fluid called plasma, these cells are red blood cells which transports oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the body tissues, white blood cells, that fights against infection while platelets helps to clot the blood.

Human blood is grouped into four types A, B, AB and O. The difference in the blood is due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and antibodies. Each letter refers to its antigen present on the surface of red blood cells. As blood group A, B and AB have A, B and A and B antigen respectively while in O no antigen is present. The antigens are present on the surface of red blood cells, while antibodies are in plasma. Presently more than 20 genetically determined blood group systems are known today, but AB and Rh system are most important for the blood transfusion purpose. It was Karl Landsteiner who discovered the ABO blood group system and he was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1930.

Each blood group also possesses an additional factor i.e. called as Rhesus factor or Rh factor. This Rh factor was discovered in the blood of Rhesus monkey by Karl Landsteiner and Alexander S. Wiener in 1940. It was observed that when blood from Rhesus macaque monkey was injected into the rabbits and guinea pigs, it gets clotted. It was because of the presence of another antigen that was not classified before. Landsteiner and his co-workers called this antigen as Rh (Rhesus) factor. The symbol 'Rh' came from the first two letters of the species name of the monkey.

Most of the persons have this Rh factor on the red blood cells surface and called as Rh- positive (Rh+) those who does not have this factor called as Rh negative (Rh-). A person with Rh- does not have Rh antibodies naturally in the blood plasma. But a person with Rh- blood can develop Rh antibodies in the blood plasma if he or she receives blood from a person with Rh+ blood, whose antigens can trigger the production of Rh antibodies. A person with Rh+ blood can receive blood from a person with Rh- blood without any problems.

The discovery of Rh factor has a valuable practical importance, it is related with Rh- induced haemolytic disease of the new born or erythroblastosis fetalis. This condition is also called as Rh- incompatibility, or mother fetus incompatibility. Such status develops when the Rh- women married with Rh+ man, on pregnancy she has Rh+ fetus, this Rh+ factor may be inherited from father. If a woman get pregnant, during the prenatal visit to doctor she has been asked for the simple blood test to know wether she is Rh+ or Rh-. If she is Rh- and she does have Rh antibodies, the baby's father also will be tested to find out his Rh type. If he's Rh- too, the baby has no chance of having Rh+ blood. Thus, there's no risk of Rh incompatibility. If the baby's father is Rh+ the baby will have 50% or more chance of having Rh+ blood. As a result a woman is at high risk of development o Rh incompatibility.

In the womb fetus remains attached with the mothers body with the help of placenta, placenta is that organ that connects the fetus to the wall of uterus via umbilical cord. Nutrients and mother's antibodies regularly transfer across the placental boundary into fetus, but her red blood cells do not transfer until and unless there is accidental rupture.

In general anti Rh+ antibodies donot present in first case unless she had not previously came into the contact with Rh- blood. Placenta do ruptures normally at the normal child birth, so some fetal blood gets into mother's body, being Rh- the mother's immune system treats Rh+ fetal cells as these are foreign substances and makes antibodies against foetus blood cells. The first child is always normal because mother is exposed to Rh antigen during child birth when the damage of small blood vessels takes place and blood gets frequently exchanged between foetus and mother during child birth and it takes time for the mother to develop antibodies, first infant are not often get affected unless the mother has history of miscarriages that sensitized her immune system.

When the second pregnancy happens maternal antibodies cross the placenta and destroy fetal red blood cells as those get burst or agglutinate. When the red blood cells are broken down they make bilirubin. This causes jaundice to infant because of lack of oxygen. The infant may have large number of symptoms before birth which may include fast heart rate, enlarged heart, liver and spleen and swelling on the whole body. After birth baby suffers from anaemia a chronic blood condition because of low red blood cell count characterized by lack of energy, this cause the infant to be pale. Jaundice in which bile pigments build up in the blood and cause skin, eyeballs and urine to take on a yellow tone, this may be present at birth or appears within 24 hours after the birth. Small red or brown spots or purple patches on the skin also appear. Swelling on the whole body occur. This condition is called as erythrobastosis fetalis or haemolytic disease of new born or Rh incompatibility or mother fetus incompatibility.

Before birth this condition can be treated by blood transfusion, the unborn baby may need to have blood transfusion while still in the womb. In few cases the baby may need to be born earlier. After the birth the infant may have phototherapy in which bright lights are used to help break down of the bilirubin in infant's body. As the level of bilirubin decreases, the skin will lose its yellow color. In mild cases of haemolytic anaemia, few medicines may be given to prompt the body to make red blood cells. If the anemia persists at severe stage blood transfusion through umbilical cord may be done. The new born who has this condition will be treated with blood exchange transfusion which involves slow removal of the blood from new born and replacing it with fresh blood or plasma from a donor.

It can also be treated by immunizing Rh- woman for first and subsequent pregnancy with a serum Rho-GAM. The injected antibodies quickly agglutinate any fetal red cells as they enter the mother's blood by preventing her from forming her own antibodies. This is quite effective treatment for the prevention of this condition, without the use of Rho-GAM an Rh- woman will produce large amount of

Rh- antibodies in subsequent pregnancies and the risk of this disease will increase.
The erythroblastosis fetalis can be prevented by screening tests, if a lady is concerned about having problems, get her ABO and Rh blood types checked before getting pregnant. Otherwise, it may be done as a part of her first prenatal visit. If she has been pregnant before or had blood transfusions, she may need few additional tests. Rh factor treatments are the other best alternative, if the mother and her baby have an Rh type mismatch, she may be given Rh factor immune globulin. This medicine is given to prevent Rh incompatibility from happening. So the prerequisite is to be aware about the erythroblastosis fetalis signs and symptoms and to take the preventions at the right stage.


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Management and Treatment

What complications are associated with Rh incompatibility?

Rh incompatibility does not affect pregnant women. In a baby, it can cause hemolytic anemia. Hemolytic anemia causes a baby’s red blood cells to be destroyed faster than they can be replaced.

The effects of hemolytic anemia can range from mild to severe. These effects may include jaundice, liver failure, and heart failure. Doctors treat this condition quickly depending on its severity.

  • For mild cases, no treatment may be necessary.
  • For severe cases, a baby may receive a blood transfusion through the umbilical cord. This procedure helps replace the baby’s red blood cells.
  • Babies who have jaundice, or a large amount of bilirubin in the blood, may be treated with special lights to help reduce bilirubin levels.

You're Rh-Negative & Pregnant. now what?

Now that you know you are pregnant, your doctor should be checking your blood for the Rh-negative (Rh-) Factor. So what does this mean and why does it matter?

There are 8 main blood types in human beings. The Rh-positive types are A, B, AB and O. The Rh-negative blood types are A-, B-, AB- and O-. The Rh-negative (Rh-) Factor is much more rare than the Rh-positive (Rh+) Factor, accounted for only 15% of the US Population. When you are Rh-negative it means that you do not have a protein called, The Rh Factor, named for the Rhesus Monkey protein or the D antigen, on the surface of your red blood cells. Blood Type & Factor play an important role in pregnancy when an Rh-negative (Rh-) woman becomes pregnant with a man who is Rh-positive (Rh+). Since 85% of the US Population is Rh-positive (Rh+), it stands to reason that Rh-negative women are more likely to get pregnant by an Rh-positive mate. For more on the Migration and Distribution of the Rh- Factor Blood Line, please click here.

There are reasons why your doctor will test your blood during your pregnancy. However, finding out your blood type and the compatibility of your mates is the most important. If you are pregnant and Rh-negative and are carrying a child that is Rh-positive, like the child's father your baby and future pregnancies can be at risk for a serious medical disease, birth defect or worse miscarriage and death.

When an Rh-negative mother is exposed to her Rh-positive baby's blood, the mother's body is at risk for becoming "sensitized". This causes the mother's immune system to shift into gear and begin producing antibodies that are specifically designed to find and destroy these foreign blood cells.

During your first pregnancy, these antibodies are typically not dangerous, because chances are that you will not be exposed to your child's blood until delivery. Therefore, the first child would typically be unaffected. However, once an Rh-negative mother has been exposed or sensitized to her child's Rh-positive blood, the process of building a multiplying army of antibodies has began. These antibodies will sit in wait for the next pregnancy and once the Rh-positive cells are recognized, the antibodies are programmed to attack. Without medical intervention, all of your subsequent pregnancies are at risk of being self terminated by these antibodies.

In the late 1940's the Rh-negative factor was discovered by two scientists, who began looking for a cure to a disease that killed 2 dozen babies each day. In 1968, a process of medical intervention was invented and a product called RhoGAM or (Brand Rho(D) Immune Globulin (Human), became FDA approved and available for use. When an Rh-negative mother is given an "injection" of RhoGAM, it protects her immune system from being exposed to the Rh-positive blood. RhoGAM is usually administered twice during your pregnancy, if you choose to get it, once at 28 weeks and again within 72 hours of delivery. RhoGAM is a human blood/plasma product. If you would like to find out more about RhoGAM's donor, screening and/or manufacturing process, please click here to be redirected to the Johnson & Johnson Company, RhoGAM Homepage.

Since 1968, other competitive products have also become available for use in this situation. Please do your own research on the positive and negative effects, risks and ingredients of each drug, so that you can make the most informed decision on how to handle your bodies Rh- Pregnancy.

Without use of Medical Intervention, the immune system of an Rh-negative mother will not be controlled. These sensitized antibodies it has created are from the first pregnancy are specifically programmed, ready and waiting to attack the Rh-positive (Rh+) blood cells of your subsequent pregnancies. As the antibodies begin to attack and destroy the red blood cells of your pregnancy, it can lead to serious complications including Anemia, Jaundice, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, Heart Failure and even death in severe cases. This horrible condition is called Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn or HDN and in severe cases would typically cause a still birth or cause death very shortly after birth.

In General, for the protection of your future pregnancies, all Rh-negative woman should be treated for Rh-positive sensitization after a normal delivery, a miscarriage, an induced abortion or menstrual extraction, an ectopic pregnancy, chorionic villus sampling, external cephalic version, amniocentesis, hemorrhage, abdominal trauma, still birth, fetal blood sampling and any blood or plasma transfusions.

There are some doctors, who will tell those people with Rh-negative, that their blood type causes no special health concerns except when they give or receive blood, or during pregnancy. However, THIS IS NOT TRUE. There are other Medical and Genetic Issues that are associated with being a person who has Rh-negative (Rh-) blood. For more information on Medical and Scientific Research and Studies related to the Rh- Factor, please click here.


Blood & Dangers with Rhogam FM Autism the skyrocketing epidemic

It`s an age since I posted on this message board - and my apologies to any of you who may remember me for the silence. I`ve been a busy girl since my Daughters recovery from Chronic Fatigue - been researching my head off amongst other things. and want to share some must read articles.

I have just read the brillient thread started be sandyl on blood type & FM.
Many of your replies suspect a connection of FM symptoms between Rh neg blood and the Rhogam vaccination. I believe there is!

I posted a thread on blood type 3 yrs ago and the results were startling. as I found more of you were Rh neg than positive.
A- & AB- in particular were 3 to 4 times higher in numbers than per population average. At the time I couldn`t figure why, but now feel injections are a connection.

I am VERY emotional over the danger of all vaccinations and would like for those of you interested to read these two articles I have found. They`re rather long so you may like to print. Happy reading.

Autism–The Skyrocketing Epidemic
Kathryn Picoulin, BSRN, N.D., Ph.D

The incidence rate of autism has skyrocketed by 500 % in the last ten years. Between July 2001 and October 2001 California alone has had a record number of new cases of autism (705), a 54 % increase in just three months. In Ohio there was a 6,822 % increase within the last 6 years.

Autism is a collection of disorders rather than a specific disease. It is characterized by abnormal language and social development, with social withdrawal, such as lack of attachment, avoidance of eye contact and failure to cuddle. Other symptoms include depression, poor memory, self-injurious behaviors, anorexia, tremors, seizures, poor concentration, delayed speech, increased sound and touch sensitivity, sleeping disorders, rashes and accelerated death of brain cells. It also includes motor movement disorders, impairment in hearing and vision.

At the Second International Public Conference of the National Vaccine Information Center held two years ago, many researchers, doctors, and professors presented the links between the MMR vaccine and autism.

The MMR vaccine was introduced in 1988. Even though the incidence of measles had dropped by 85 % by the time the MMR was introduced, it was believed that this vaccine would help to eradicate three common childhood diseases, measles, mumps and rubella. By 1994 researchers began to link the MMR vaccine to autism.

Two studies done in 1969 and 1974 respectively showed that when measles, mumps and rubella were put into one vaccine, the viruses interfered with each other. The measles virus settled in the intestinal tract and caused a type of irritable bowel. The measles virus has also been found to create autoimmune antibodies in the brain.

A blind study done by a Dr. Andrew Wakefield who tested 25 autistic children against 25 healthy children found that all 25 autistic children had the measles virus in their intestines. When the 25 healthy children were tested only one had the virus in the intestines.

F. Edward Yazbak, MD, a pediatrician and school physician in Rhode Island had conducted research evaluating the impact of live virus vaccinations to women before, during or after pregnancy. He found that the infants born to 20 out of 25 women who received a MMR vaccine postnatally developed autism. He found that the live rubella virus from the vaccine would pass on to the suckling infants through the breast milk.

A 1980 study showed that the rubella live virus persisted in the body for many years. It infected the islets of langerhans in the pancreas and severely reduced the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas causing juvenile diabetes.

Dr. Vijendra Singh, PhD, a research associate of immunology at Utah State University, and specialist in autistic children reported that 80 % of the autistic children are suffering from abnormal immune response in the brain from the nicks in the developing myelin sheath on brain cells caused by the viruses.

Dr. Mary Megson, assistant professor at the Medical College of Virginia reports that the live measles vaccine depletes the child’s body of vitamin A. The current vaccination recommendation for the MMR vaccine is that the first shot be given when the infant is between 12-15 months. But, because it is felt that the first shot may not provide adequate lifetime immunity, a second MMR is recommended at 4-6 years or at 11-13 years. There are states that recommend the second MMR before the child enters kindergarten.

The adverse effects of the MMR vaccine are the following: seizures, learning disabilities, encephalitis, neurologic disorders, muscle incoordination, autism, optic neuritis that can lead to blindness, deafness, Guillain Barre syndrome (paralysis), demyelination of the nerve sheaths, fever, joint pain, headache, blood clotting disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, diabetes, meningitis, anaphylactic shock (severe allergic reaction) and death.

Many researchers believe that all the new vaccines released in the last decade, especially hepatitis B and the mandates requiring the vaccine are the main cause for this epidemic. Adding the series of Hepatitis B (12.5mcg mercury) and the HIB vaccine more than doubled the mercury intake for infants through vaccines.

The EPA set the maximum mercury exposure limit at .1mcg/kg/day. Let’s look at some numbers. A newborn that weighs nine pounds is 4.8kg. The most mercury that he or she can receive through the vaccine system is .4mcg. Yet the hepatitis vaccine that the newborn receives before it leaves the hospital is 12.5mcg. One month later the newborn is required to receive hepatitis B for the second dose of 12.5mcg. At the two month checkup the series of shots that the infant receives totals 50mcg. By the time the infant gets the MMR at age 15 months, he or she would have received 237.5mcg of methyl mercury at a time the neurological system is developing.

If the mother received Rhogam for Rh negative blood, or a flu shot during pregnancy the unborn fetus would be hit by the mercury from these two vaccines. Several studies have shown that mothers, who were vaccinated with the MMR and Hepatitis B vaccine even 5 months before becoming pregnant or even during the pregnancy, increased the risk of having an autistic child by 85%. Mercury easily crosses the placenta and the blood brain barrier to deposit itself into the brain tissue of the developing fetus.

The CDC (Center for Disease Control) reported that exposure to more than 62.5 mcg of mercury in the first three months of life caused a significant increase in the incidence of autism. Next month we’ll see what is being done to make vaccines safer and what can be done to help the child.

DANGERS with RHOGAM given DURING pregnancy

Sheri Nakken, R.N., MA, Classical Homeopath
Vaccination Information & Choice Network, Nevada City CA & Wales UK

You have to research MUCH on your own and come to your own decision

The important point about RhoGam is that the antibodies attack ALL RH positive cells. If mother's blood mixes with the baby's blood, the antibodies will neutralize the baby's blood cells before the mother can create her own antibodies against the baby. The dilemna is that if the mother's and baby's blood does actually mix it is equally likely that the RhoGam antibodies will cross over and attack the baby itself. This happens frequently but isn't discussed by most doctors.

*******It is a big reason to only get the shot after pregancy if the baby really is RH+ ************

The RhoGam antibodies will attach to your baby's blood cells and render them incapable of delivering oxygen. This has long term consequences on brain development. My doctor was completely ignorant of this issue.

The RhoGam antibodies do not cross the placenta. But neither do blood cells from the baby which is exactly why the RhoGam is injected. In very rare circumstances, such as the mother becoming injured, the blood of the mother and baby can mix. It's a paradox, only when the antibodies are needed can they harm the baby.

The RhoGam antibodies are put there to attack any baby's blood that comes across. But if there is mixing then the antibodies can go across the other way and they do exactly that. Antibodies diffuse much more readily through the bloodstream than whole cells.

Immunology textbooks still correctly point out that RhoGam should be given after childbirth only if the baby is RH+. These are the mothers that are at high risk.

However the company that manufactures RhoGam lobbied to have it's use expanded to all RH- mothers during and after pregnancy to 'guarantee' that all high risk mothers were protected.

Doctors try to rationalize this by saying that even during the first pregnancy blood can mix and antibodies can be produced that will attack the baby. This almost never happens because the blood would have to mix twice, once to stimulate the production of Abs in the mother and the second time for those antibodies to diffuse to the baby. And regardless, the paradox comes into play because if the mother's antibodies can diffuse to harm the baby, then so can the injected RhoGam antibodies. They are the same exact antibodies.

Ask your doctor how your anti-RH antibodies were more harmful than other mother's anti-RH antibodies (in Rhogam) . They will notcomprehend what you are talking about.

RhoGam after pregnancy - childbirth is what causes the blood to mix and, when given at this time, RhoGam can prevent stimulation of the mother's immune system. There is no reason to give RhoGam during pregnancy except to
increase profits for the manufacturer because RH- mothers with RH- babies will also get the injection even though they couldn't possibly need it.

Each RhoGam injected contains blood serum pooled from several different persons with the antibodies. The manufacturer can not possibly screen or remove all viruses from it. But that's a separate issue.

You would need a blood transfusion from an RH+ person to stimulate the production of antibodies against RH factor. You will not find a single case in the scientific literature of an RH- person who seroconverted after
minimal blood contact with an RH+ person.

The shot does work after pregnancy when it can not possibly harm the baby. It offers NO additional benefit during pregnancy. The safety concern during pregnancy is real. Does it make sense to you to inject antibodies into the mother's blood stream that are designed for the sole purpose to eliminate cells of the baby? There are numerous case reports of babies born anoxic and asphyxiated because the RHoGam antibodies crossed the placenta during the gestation period. This is not the only safety concern with the injection, just the most obvious.

I hope this comes across clearly: the reason that it is a risk for RH- mothers to carry RH+ babies is that the mother could produce antibodies to her own child. If those antibodies are in her blood while she is pregnant there is a small chance that they will come into contact with and harm the baby. Rhogam during pregnancy guarantees those antibodies will be there. It does not matter if the mother made the antibodies or if they were injected, the baby is now at risk for attack from RH+ antibodies. The original point of saving the baby from antibody attack has been abrogated by giving rhogam during gestation.

Rhogam antibodies against the baby and antibodies produced by the RH-mother are identical. If the whole point is to prevent these antibodies from circulating in the mother during pregnancy, why on Earth would you inject them into the mother exactly when she is pregnant.

The antibodies are intended to protect the second pregnancy by preventing sensitization. If sensitization were to occur and the second baby were rh+ then you would have antibodies circulating in your blood against your own
baby. This would only be a problem if the blood mixed.

The problem is that injecting Rhogam during gestation you are getting protection for your second pregnancy at the expense of your first. If you put Rhogam antibodies into your body during your first pregnancy you are putting antibodies against your baby into your blood stream where, if blood mixing does occur, those antibodies will attack your baby. This is exactly what you are trying to avoid for the second pregnancy. So, in reality you are protecting your second pregnancy from the antibodies by injecting them into yourself during the first pregnancy. I can't state it any better than this: if you inject Rhogam durng your first pregnancy you will prevent a potentially harmful situation for your next pregnancy by causing that exact same harmful situation in your first pregnancy.

The company that makes the injection decided that the shot should be given during gestation to increase profits. It increases profits becasue rh- mothers carrying rh- babies are also getting the injection. The company has just doubled its sales of Rhogam through a minor lobbying effort. Great business decision - poor health decision. They convinced the government agencies to support the expanded role of Rhogam who then recommended it for
all rh- negative pregnancies. Doctors follow the government recommendations without question. Doctors do not make the decisions, they follow orders.

Rhogam works just fine if you get it immediately after you deliver when itcan't harm the baby. You can get Rhogam without mercury.

The Rhogam antibodies are identical to the antibodies that the Rh- mother makes against her child. The Rhogam antibodies were collected from RH- mothers who did have an immune response to their RH+ babies. The Rhogam antibodies will attack and destroy the baby's red blood cells (if they do come across the placenta) before the mother's immune response kicks in and makes her own antibodies.

You give rhogam to a mother after delivery becasue that is when the blood mixes. The rhogam antibodies destroy the baby's cells so that the mother's immune system never sees them and therefore never becomes sensitized to make those exact same antibodies. If you give the Rhogam antibodies during pregnancy you have just created the situation you were trying to avoid. The whole point is for the pregnant mother to NOT have antibodies against her own child circulating in her system while she is pregnant.
Any blood mixing would allow those antibodies to attack the baby. It does not matter if the mother's immune system made those antibodies or another mother's immune system (rhogam) made those antibodies. They are identical down to their molecular structure and you do not want them to contact the baby.

In fact, we can refer to the mother's immune response against her baby as rhogam production since that's exactly what it is:
Therefore, The rh+ cells of the baby stimulate rhogam production by the rh-mother'simmune system. We want to prevent rhogam from circulating in the mother while she is pregnant because those antibodies will harm the baby. To do this we give rhogam immediately after birth so that any rh+ cells that are still in the mother will be destroyed. This keeps the mother's immune system from seeing those cells and producing her own rhogam which would stay in her circulation where they could attack any subsequent rh+ babies.
Doctors would like us to inject rhogam antibodies during pregnancy to prevent the formation of rhogam antibodies. The rhogam will destroy all the rh+ cells thus preventing the mother from making her own rhogam antibodies.
But what's the point, you prevented the mother's antibodies from being there by putting someone else's antibodies in the exact same spot. This is the point which I am Rhogam is the immune response to the baby. It is the pooled serum from rh- mother's who have had an immune response to their rh+ babies. You do not want those antibodies to come into contact with your rh+ baby.

EUROPE only administers after pregnancy! During pregnancy is a decision that was made by the manufacturer to make money.
If a woman has a miscarriage she should have the shot immediately. If there is an amniocentesis performed it may be worth while to have the injection but there is some risk to that. It makes no sense to give the injection at 28 weeks during a healthy pregnancy. The blood does not mix in a sufficient manner to cause an immune response in the mother. If there were that much mixing then the injected antibodies (rhogam) would have access to the baby
and kill the baby's red blood cells. It's a no win situation with rhogam at 28 weeks. The reason the manufacturer can get away with it is exactly because there is no blood mixing. The rhogam works it's way out of the
mother's system without ever doing anything.

Another way to look at rhogam. Rhogam kills the baby's red blood cells no matter where those cells are. If the baby's blood cells are in the mother, those cells will be destroyed. If the baby's red blood cells are circulating through the baby delivering oxygen to the baby's brain, the rhogam will still kill those cells and deprive the baby of oxygen. It is not a good idea to take any chance that would allow the rhogam access to the baby.

The doctors are concerned only about baby's cells circulating in the mother but antibodies diffuse much more easily than whole cells so the rhogam will readily find the baby's cells where the baby is than for the
whole cells of the baby to find their way to the rhogam.


Again, You have to research MUCH on your own and come to your own.
--------------------------------------------------------

******
"Just look at us. Everything is backwards everything is upside down.
Doctors destroy health, lawyers destroy justice, universities destroy
knowledge, governments destroy freedom, the major media destroy information
and religions destroy spirituality" . Michael Ellne


More Information

¿Es posible que dos padres Rh negativo tengan un hijo que sea Rh positivo? Estoy embarazada de mi segundo hijo. Mi tipo de sangre es O-. Mi esposo y mi hija tienen sangre tipo A-. En mi última cita el ginecólogo me dijo que en mi próxima visita se me haría una prueba de anticuerpos y que lo más probable es que necesitara una vacuna Rhogam. Sé que esto se administra como medida de precaución en caso de que el bebé sea Rh+. Sin embargo, yo pensaba que esto era imposible ya que tanto mi esposo como yo somos Rh-. Cuando le pregunté a la enfermera, me quedé muy sorprendida cuando me dijo que es posible tener un hijo Rh+, debido a genes recesivos del Rh+. ¿Es esto cierto? Toda la información que he encontrado hasta ahora me lleva a creer que esto es imposible. (Y sí, estoy 100% segura, sin ninguna duda de que mi marido es el padre de mi hijo).

-Un adulto curioso de Indiana La respuesta a esta pregunta tan importante es que sí. Y la respuesta es que si, por una razón mucho más simple que la de que dos padres con ojos azules puedan tener un hijo con ojos verdes (como se discute aquí­). La razón es que las personas que tienen un prueba que resulta negativa para el factor Rh, no siempre son Rh negativo. La prueba no siempre es lo suficientemente sensible para obtener la respuesta correcta (aunque generalmente si lo es). La prueba para identificar el factor Rh sólo examina uno de los dos genes que controlan el factor Rh. Y no examina cualquiera de los otros genes que puedan causar problemas similares. Para entender cómo la prueba puede salir mal, primero tenemos que saber más acerca de la biología del factor Rh y nuestro sistema inmunológico. La explicación a el factor Rh se suele simplificar como un rasgo controlado por un gen. Sin embargo hay dos genes pare el factor Rh, RhD y RHCE. También hay otros genes con nombres como Kell, Duffy y Kidd que también pueden causar problemas. Pueden haber problemas cuando la madre tiene una versión de uno de estos genes y su bebé tiene una diferente. La razón por la cual esto puede causar un problema es que la madre puede producir anticuerpos contra las proteínas de su bebé. Los anticuerpos pueden causar serios problemas de salud porque pueden destruir los glóbulos rojos del bebé. ¿Cómo fuimos de genes a proteínas a las células rojas de la sangre? Recuerden, que los genes son en realidad las recetas para hacer las proteínas. Por ejemplo, el gen RhD tiene las instrucciones para hacer la proteína RhD. Las proteínas Rh se encuentran en los glóbulos rojos. A veces la sangre de un bebé puede pasar al torrente sanguíneo de la mamá. Cuando eso ocurre, la mamá produce anticuerpos contra cualquier proteína diferente a la suya que se encuentra en el exterior de los glóbulos rojos del bebé. (Parte de las proteínas Rh están ubicadas en la parte exterior de los glóbulos rojos.) Por lo general pensamos acerca de los anticuerpos como nuestra protección en contra de bacterias y virus. La forma en que los anticuerpos nos protegen es reconociendo diferentes proteinas en el exterior de estos invasores para luego destruirlos. En el caso de un bebé Rh+ y una madre Rh-, el sistema se vuelve en contra de nosotros. El sistema inmunológico de la mamá piensa que los glóbulos rojos del bebé son invasores y los destruye. De la manera en que las cosas funcionan el primer bebé Rh+ no ocasiona problemas. La madre produce anticuerpos en contra de las células del bebé, pero esto ocurre demasiado tarde en el embarazo y por lo tanto no ocasiona problemas graves. Pero el problema viene con el segundo bebé que sea Rh+. El segundo bebé puede estar en problemas. Esto es porque una vez que un anticuerpo ha sido producido en contra de una proteína que es identificada como diferente, el anticuerpo se queda en nuestro cuerpo por mucho tiempo. Por eso, por ejemplo, una vez que hemos tenido varicela, no podemos contraerla de nuevo. Lo que esto significa para nuestro caso es que los anticuerpos creados en contra de los glóbulos rojos del primer bebe Rh+ todavía existen para el segundo bebé Rh+. Estos anticuerpos atacan los glóbulos rojos del segundo bebé causando todos los problemas de los que usted ha oído hablar. Bien, ahora regresemos a su pregunta. Entonces, ¿cómo podría la prueba utilizada para obtener el factor Rh del papá resultar equivocada? ¿por qué estamos hablando acerca del papá? Para que haya un problema, una madre debe ser Rh- y un bebé Rh+. Si la madre es Rh-, el factor Rh+ del bebé es casi siempre determinado por el papá. Una manera obvia en la que la prueba pueda dar el resultado equivocado del factor Rh del papá es si no detecta la presencia de la proteína RhD. Además de un error humano, hay un par de versiones del gen RhD que pueden pasar desapercibidos en la prueba. Una de las versiones se llama D débil. La versión D débil produce sólo una pequeña cantidad de proteína RhD. Aunque la prueba no puede ver la pequeña cantidad de proteína, la mamá a veces puede producir anticuerpos en contra de esta. Otra versión se llama D parcial. Con esta versión se produce mucha proteína RhD. Sin embargo, la proteína que se produce es un poco diferente, de manera que los anticuerpos de la prueba no la reconocen. Como la prueba solo utiliza anticuerpos para buscar la proteína RhD, la proteína RhD parcial no es detectada. Hay otras pruebas de laboratorio que se puede hacer para detectar estos dos genes, pero no siempre se hacen. Estas versiones del gen RhD son bastante raras y no causan problemas muy a menudo. Sin embargo, usted se puede estar preguntando, ¿qué pasa con los otros genes del factor Rh como RHCE o todos los otros genes? ¿Por qué no se hacen pruebas para las otras proteínas Rh? La respuesta es que las otras proteínas no causan problemas con tanta frecuencia. La principal razón por la cual la proteína D causa más problemas relacionados con el factor Rh es que es más inmunogénica que las proteínas producidas por el gen RHCE. Lo que esto significa es que nuestro cuerpo tiende a generar anticuerpos en contra de la proteína RhD mucho más fácilmente que en contra de las otras proteínas Rh. Por lo tanto, es mucho más raro que estas proteínas puedan causar un problema. Sin embargo, estas proteínas están causando un mayor porcentaje de problemas ya que ahora se están haciendo pruebas de manera mas rutinaria para detectar RhD. Bueno, creo que ya fue suficiente información. El factor Rh es mucho más complicado de lo que la mayoría de la gente piensa. Todas estas sutilezas no suelen ser importantes. Pero a veces lo pueden ser. Traducido por
Erika Bustamante


Rh Explained

After a year of trying, Suzanne, 36, found out she was pregnant with her first child. Her excitement quickly turned to worry when her doctor told her she was Rh negative (Rh-). When a blood test revealed her husband was Rh positive (Rh+), her concern escalated.

What Is Rh?

Rh factor is a protein that can be found on the surface red blood cells. If the Rh factor is present in your blood, your blood type is positive if it is not present, your blood type is negative. There are 4 major blood types—O, A, B, and AB. Each of these blood types can be (+) or (-) with respect to Rh.

Genes determine if the Rh factor is positive or negative. You inherit one Rh gene from each of your parents. The combination determines your Rh status, as shown in the table below.

If you inherit… You will be…
+ + Rh positive
+ – Rh positive
– – Rh negative

In the United States, more than 85% of people are Rh+. Being Rh- does not affect your health, but it can complicate a pregnancy.

How Does Rh Affect a Pregnancy?

When an Rh- woman conceives a child with an Rh+ man, their child can be Rh- or Rh+. If the baby's blood type matches the mother's (both are Rh-), Rh causes no complications. This may not be the case however, if the baby's blood type is Rh+.

Problems arise when the baby’s Rh+ blood gets into the mother’s Rh- bloodstream by traveling through the placenta. Red blood cells with the Rh factor are foreign to the mother. In an attempt to fight off this foreign invader, her immune system produces antibodies against the Rh+ blood cells. The process is called sensitization—the mother is now sensitized to the Rh factor.

During the first pregnancy, this usually does not present any danger to the fetus. Most often, the baby is born before the mother develops enough Rh antibodies to do harm. Although some red blood cells leak across the placenta during pregnancy, the greatest amount is transferred at delivery. In addition, Rh antibodies can develop after a miscarriage, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, or amniocentesis.

Rh sensitization can cause problems for a baby in later pregnancies. If a woman who is sensitized is carrying an Rh+ baby, her antibodies to the Rh factor can cross the placenta and attack the baby’s red blood cells. This causes hemolytic disease due to Rh incompatibility. It is an anemia that can cause serious complications in the infant, including brain damage and even death. Although Rh disease is rarely seen in the first pregnancy, later pregnancies are at an increasingly greater risk.

What Can Be Done?

Women who are Rh- but unsensitized are given a shot of Rh immune globulin at around 28 weeks of pregnancy. She is given another shot within 72 hours of giving birth if her baby is Rh+. Rh- women should also be given the immune globulin shot after any event that could cause the blood of an Rh+ fetus to mix with the mother's blood, including:

  • Miscarriage
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Abortion
  • Amniocentesis
  • Chorionic villus sampling
  • Abdominal trauma
  • External cephalic version—when a doctor attempts to turn a breech baby into a head-down position before labor

Rh- immune globulin contains antibodies to the Rh factor. These antibodies seek out the baby's Rh+ blood in the mother's bloodstream, attach to it, and destroy it before the mother can make antibodies of her own. Rh-immune globulin's protective effect lasts for about 12 weeks, so the shot will be given again during future pregnancies.

If a Woman Is Already Sensitized…

An Rh-sensitized pregnancy is a high risk pregnancy. During an Rh-sensitized pregnancy, the mother's blood is tested for Rh antibodies throughout the pregnancy. If the amount of antibodies is rising to an unsafe level, tests are done to assess the health of the fetus. In some situations, the doctor may advise inducing early labor and giving blood transfusions to the newborn child.

In the last two decades, many advances have been made in treating a fetus with severe Rh disease. For example, blood transfusions can be done in utero, using a tiny blood vessel in the fetus's umbilical cord. This highly-specialized procedure is only available in some centers.

Feeling More Assured

After Suzanne's obstetrician explained Rh to her, she felt more at ease. Although she is still a bit concerned, she knows that with careful monitoring backed by the advances of modern medicine, she and her doctor can help keep her baby safe and healthy.

Resources

The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
http://www.acog.org

Canadian Resources

About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
http://sogc.org

References

Rh disease. March of Dimes website. Available at: http://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/rh-disease.aspx. Updated December 2009. Accessed May 20, 2014.

The Rh factor: How it can affect your pregnancy. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org/

/media/For%20Patients/faq027.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20120713T2116255732. Updated September 2013. Accessed March 23, 2016.

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Can Rhesus factor cause miscarriage in women

In our last article on blood group and genotype compatibility before marriage,we explored all the blood groups in humans most especially the ABO blood group system.

We also read how this blood group incompatibility can lead to certain complications on the offsprings.

We are going to concentrate on the rhesus factor incompatibility in this section.

We shall concentrate on it because it is quite broad and we intend exploring it’s content to the latest for perfect understanding.

What is Rhesus Factor?

The different blood types A,B,AB,and O have specific proteins on the surface of their red blood cells (RBCs)

Each of the four blood is classified based on the presence of another proteins on the surface of RBCs and so this proteins that are present on the Red blood cells are what is called Rhesus factor.

How to determine your Rhesus factor

  • If this proteins are present on the surface of your red blood cells then you are Rhesus positive (Rhesus carrier).It is written as Rh+
  • When this protein is absent on the surface of your red blood cell,then you are Rhesus negative(non Rhesus carrier).It is written as Rh-

About 80% of the people are Rhesus positive meaning that there is the presence of a specific protein on the surface of their red blood cells.A smaller percentage of people have the rhesus negative factor.

What is Rhesus factor incompatibility

Being Rhesus positive or negative will not in anyway affect your health,except when the person is pregnant and there is an incompatibility between the rhesus factor of the mother and that of the child.

You ask?How does this happen?

If the mother of the child is rhesus negative,it is best for her to marry a man who is also negative.

If a rhesus negative woman marries a positive man,they are medically incompatible because the child will end up being rhesus positive which is when complications arises.

Approximately half of the children conceived by a negative mother and a positive father will inherit the rhesus postive factor from the father.

For proper compatibility,a negative woman should get married to a negative man and vice versa.

What happens during pregnancy when a negative mother have a positive foetus

If a woman who is Rh negative and a man who is Rh positive conceive a baby, there is the potential for a baby to have a health problem.

The baby growing inside the Rh-negative mother may have Rh-positive blood, inherited from the father as explained above.

Rh incompatibility usually isn’t a problem if it’s the mother’s first pregnancy because, unless there’s some sort of abnormality, the fetus’s blood does not normally enter the mother’s circulatory system during the course of the pregnancy.

The problem arises when the mothers blood comes in contact with the baby’s blood (More like mixed together ).

How can the mothers blood come in contact with the baby’s blood?

  • During delivery, the mother’s and baby’s blood can intermingle. If this happens, the mother’s body recognizes the Rh protein(Rh positive factor) on the surface of the baby’s red blood cell as a foreign substance and might begin making antibodies (protein molecules in the immune system that recognize, and later work to destroy, foreign substances) against the Rh proteins.
  • Other ways Rh-negative pregnant women can be exposed to the Rh protein that might cause antibody production include blood transfusions with Rh-positive blood, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy.

As discussed earlier when your antibodies attack your baby’s red blood cells, hemolytic disease can occur. This means your baby’s red blood cells are destroyed.

When your baby’s healthy red blood cells are destroyed, bilirubin will build up in their bloodstream.

Bilirubin is a chemical that’s created from the breakdown of red blood cells. Too much bilirubin is a sign that the liver, which is responsible for processing old blood cells, is having trouble.

Your baby may have one or more of the following symptoms if their bilirubin levels are high after birth:

  • yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, which is called jaundice
  • lethargy
  • low muscle tone

These symptoms will subside once the Rh incompatibility treatment is completed.

This antibodies produced on recognition of the Rh proteins as foreign substances are harmless during the first pregnancy not until the second or later pregnancy occurs and this Rh negative mother conceives another Rh positive child.Then this antibodies becomes activated and begins to attack the red blood cells of the foetus leading to a medical condition called hemolytic disease of the new born.This disease results in swelling and rupture of the blood cells.

This reduces the blood count of the baby to a dangerous minimal.

In severe cases, in which the effects of Rh incompatibility aren’t prevented, can result in severe complications. These complications may include:

  • brain damage to the baby
  • fluid build up or swelling in the baby
  • trouble with mental function, movement, hearing, and speech
  • seizures
  • anemia
  • heart failure

Death or sudden miscarriage of the baby can also occur.

Rh incompatibility is rarely a problem in countries with good medical care.

How to prevent Rhesus factor incompatibility.

In this case ignorance should never be a bliss because the future ofor your babies might depend on it.

This condition is very preventable to avoid complications during child birth and make you give birth to a healthy baby.

If you’re pregnant and your doctor determines that you’ve already developed antibodies against your baby, your pregnancy will be closely monitored

If you think you may be pregnant and have an Rh-negative blood type, you should talk with your doctor to determine the best plan.

One of the plans will include administration of Rh immune globulins (RhIg) to help prevent hemolytic disease of the new born In case of incompatibility. This injection is given before delivery mostly during the first trimester or during miscarriage.If your baby’s Rh factor is positive a second injection will be given to you after delivery.

If the father of your child is Rh-positive or his blood type is unknown, receiving preventive treatment will go a long way in curtailing complications.

If you had an abortion before and rhesus factor of the aborted baby was not determined before the abortions,it’s very important to talk to your doctor during your second or later pregnancies. By so doing a preventive measure of administering Rh immune globulin will be helpful.

This is to prevent the risk of already produced antibodies that will attack the red blood cells of your baby.

Treatment focuses on preventing the effects of the incompatibility.

In mild cases, the baby can be treated after birth with:

  • a series of blood transfusions
  • hydrating fluids
  • electrolytes, which are elements that regulate metabolism
  • phototherapy

How does phototherapy work?

Phototherapy involves keeping your baby near fluorescent lights to help reduce the bilirubin in their blood.In some place the baby is kept outside where the ray’s from the sun can reach.

These procedures may be repeated until the Rh-negative antibodies and excess bilirubin have been removed from your baby’s blood. Whether it must be repeated depends on the severity of your baby’s condition.

If you’re pregnant and your doctor determines that you’ve already developed antibodies against your baby, your pregnancy will be closely monitored.

I hope you learned something.

You can share or drop a comment it will help us in reviewing and getting more information from your experiences.


RH Negativity Is Not Alien

There is an idea circulating on the internet that RH negativity is evidence of humans having been hybridized with aliens, either through breeding or genetic engineering. This idea misunderstands the science of RH negativity.

While the ABO classification is based on the two antigens A and B, the Rh group has 50 antigens! However, the main Rh classification is based on one single antigen of special importance, called the D antigen. So, if your blood has the Rh D antigen, then your blood group is Rh+, else it is Rh-. The reason for the importance of this antigen is that a mismatch in the D antigen can prove fatal during blood transfusion [. ]

If the mother’s immune system has prior [exposure to the] Rh D antigen, either due to some previous blood transfusion of Rh+ blood, or if this is not the first pregnancy and the earlier pregnancies carried a Rh+ child, then the mother’s immune system is already aware of Rh D antigen and has antibodies against it ready, which can be of an immediate concern for the fetus health. [. ]

Rh- indicates the absence of the Rh D antigen which otherwise is quite abundant in most (85%) humans. So what could be the contribution of alien blood here? Obviously, there is nothing alien here, because there is no alien genes present here, it's actually the “absence” of our own genes which produce the Rh D antigen in most humans.

The last sentence is wrong. Absence of an antigen can of course come from breeding, because that is how RH- people acquire it. RH negativity is recessive, so to be RH- you have to get from each of your parents a version of the RH blood group that omits the RH D gene. But the article goes on to correctly point out that a maternal immune reaction to the child does not suggest alien breeding:

We have seen newborns die because of this attack even in horses, cats and dogs! Read about Neonatal isoerythrolysis. [This happens] in all those species where the mother has a negative antigen blood group, and the fetus has a positive antigen blood group, and mother’s blood comes in contact with fetal blood.

For that matter, [in humans] it is not only restricted to Rh D antigen either. It is also very much possible that mother whose blood group is O, gives birth to a child whose blood group is B, and if the mother’s blood comes in contact with fetal blood, then there will be antibodies against B produced by the mother’s blood! It's only that in this case it is not life threatening, while in the case of Rh D it can be life threatening to the baby.

The article then asks: why does the mother's immune system react so violently to RH D? It answers:

Some recent studies have indicated that Rh- people are resistant to some parasites like Toxoplasma. So it might have served an advantage [in European populations] NOT to have the Rh D antigen.

One can find many such instances across human evolution. For example, humans who come from an ancestry which started domesticating cattle and consuming dairy products have digestive systems which generate an enzyme called lactase which helps in digesting [the lactose in] milk. However, a significant population of humans are lactose-intolerant, which means they cannot digest milk products. Does this mean lactose-intolerant population are from an alien ancestry?

Some evolutionary gene modifications might prove fatal when expressed, but are nevertheless are useful while [recessed]. For instance, Sickle Cell anemia is a fatal disease where red blood cells [deform to sickle shape] causing life threatening complications. However, those humans who are only carriers of the [recessive] gene causing Sickle Cell Anemia are resistant to Malaria.

A 1997 article in Human Molecular Genetics traces the genetic family tree of the RH blood group: Evolution of the Human RH (Rhesus) Blood Group Genes: A 50 Year Old Prediction (Partially) Fulfilled. Using blood from different people possessing various haplotypes of the RH blood group, the authors sequenced the exact parts of chromosome 1 that control these antigens.

The high degree of homology between the coding regions of the RHCE and RHD genes is consistent with an ancestral gene duplication. The 𕙜% divergence over the coding region would suggest, assuming an average nucleotide substitution rate of 4 × 10𕒽 per nucleotide per year, that duplication occurred some 10 million years BP. This timing is consistent with the finding that the gorilla and chimpanzee are unique among the anthropoid apes in expressing homologues of both the human D and c antigens [. ]

So any alien hybridization or genetic engineering had to happen 10 million years ago, and was performed on a common ancestor to humans, apes, and chimps. Those were very patient aliens!

Another article summarizes what is known about the origin of RH D:

The Rh blood group system consists of two genes RHD and RHCE on chromosome 1, positioned in opposite directions and separated by 31.8 kb, in which the TMEM50A gene (previously SMP1) is located. The RHD gene arose as a duplication of the RHCE gene in the common ancestors of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas [37]. Both genes have 10 exons and share an overall 93.8% gene sequence identity and 96.4% exon sequence identity [38,39]. The RHD gene is flanked by two 9 kb regions of 98.6% homology, the so-called Rh boxes. [. ]

At present (December 2017), 54 antigens, 378 RHD alleles, and 116 RHCE alleles have been recognized in the Rh blood group system. The main mechanism responsible for the generation of hybrid RH genes is thought to be gene conversion, explained by the opposite orientation of the highly homologous RHD and RHCE genes. Multiple exons can be converted, but often microconversion events lead to single amino acid changes.

So not only do we know that RH D arose 10M years ago, but we also know what kind of mutation caused it. And we know that it is just one of many mutations that have happened in the RHCE and RHD genes, yielding a myriad of human haplotypes besides the A/B/O/Rh-D combinations that we so often hear about. (See here for lists of the many blood group variants in gorillas, chimps, pygmy chimps, orangutans, gibbons, macaques, and a dozen monkey species.)

If the omission of RH D is alien handiwork, then it was disguised to look very much like all the other random small antigen mutations in these genes across all these primates. It just so happens that one of these 54 human antigens can sometimes have devastating maternal-fetal interactions, but has not been evolved out of our genome. Evolution is not perfect, but it's always trying to make us better -- and that means it sometimes makes us worse.

Summary: If something walks, swims, and quacks like a random 10Myr-old mutation, it's probably just that, and not alien breeding.